- HUMAN RESPONSE TO A DISASTER
Every disaster emit specific warning signs, and every person or community has specific response to them, depending of the personal behavior, culture, economic, scientific, and technological develop, etc. In the specific case of the psychological human responses, the way and intensity in which every person responds is very different, but there are some general behavior that characterize the general response to this kind of events. Some of these are: Alarm (insula and amygdala coordinate body’s mobilization in response to threat), Attention (norepinepherine release by locus ceruleus or brain stem area promotes focused attention), Reactivity (corticosteroids promote instinctual survival rather than goal-directed reflection), Information Processing (hippocampus inhibited in spatial orientation and categorization of sensory inputs), Executive Decision Making (prefrontal cortex receives confusing/chaotic alarm signals and is down-regulated), finally, other important response is the Fight-flight responses (autonomic nervous system, sympathetic branch). In the case of the not psychological human response, there are also many way of response, but they can be summarized in three essential behavior, these are: escape (to move away from the disaster zone), take cover (for example going to a shelter underground during a tornado), or mitigate its effect. There are many things people can do to prevent or mitigate a disaster. Responses to hazards can be divided in to three groups, prevent or modify the event, modify vulnerability, and modify the loss. Two of the main actions are not to build or settle in high risk areas and to improve the knowledge and technology to anticipate and prognosticate these events. In order to identify the risk of occurrence of geological disasters in a specific location, it is important to study its local geology, to detect the possible presence of tectonic faults, volcanoes, etc.
It is very important to study and understand the geologic processes in our planet. It is necessary to register and interpret how the different geological features work and to try to prognostic their future behavior to prevent the occurrence of disasters. It is also important to be responsible when determining where and how to build or settle a community, thinking about the geological component. Finally, it is important to educate the population about these issues, denying pre existing myths about it, and teaching them how to act to prevent, mitigate, and respond to these phenomena. The world's population is growing rapidly, causing more and more people to settle in or near risk areas; it is an inevitable process, so, the geological investigation is everyday more important to prevent future disasters and their consequences.